OUM International Journal of Business and Management (OUM-IJBM) is an international peer-reviewed journal to provide an avenue for researchers to publish and share their findings in current issues, ideas and developments in business and management disciplines. It also serves as a platform for knowledge exchange, collaborations and cooperation among researchers from all over the world. OUM-IJBM is published by OUM Business School under the arm of Open University Malaysia (OUM). OUM adopts the motto ' University for all ' which believes in the democratisation of education; giving everyone a chance at self-actualisation and fulfilling their potential. In addition, this publication is on irregular basis depending on the numbers of paper submitted. OUM-IJBM is open to authors around the world without regards to nationality and accepts papers in the English Language.